Most of us have some concept of what Africa is, either from aid advertisements or in history class on the transatlantic slave trade. The Black Panther won at the Oscars, Afro-Beats are making appearances on party playlists worldwide, and West African prints are sold in H&M; Africa is “trendy,” but what does that mean for the poorest region in the world? This is one of the ways in which we have been framing Uganda.
When they said, “this is an academic program that travels” they were not joking. In each country, we have three sessions of our four classes in addition to guest lectures and site visits. The courses are Design Thinking and Development (DTD); Technology, Change, and Innovation (TCI); Anthropology and Social Change (ASC); and Social Entrepreneurship in a Global Comparative Context (SEN). Each course adds another layer to the discourse on social innovation.
In addition to our courses, we have site visits to different social enterprises. Our first visit was Innovation Village, a start-up incubator that develops solutions for tomorrow by providing and enabling an environment where start-ups from the knowledge intensive sectors are fast tracked to compete globally. The merging of business and industry, the public, and academic sectors expand the boundaries of knowledge through social innovation with a focus to deliver inclusion across key sectors. We met with people representing different member organizations.
Is social entrepreneurship an alternative to neoliberal capitalism or is a continuation of it? What is the difference between science and technology and religious and cultural beliefs if you must believe in both? What does innovation look like when there is no fall back plan/no parents to support you if you fail/when it is innovation through the need to survive?
Golden Bees is a young enterprise engaged in providing a full-scale range of beekeeping products and service. Golden Bees empowers communities by limiting human destruction of flora and fauna and generating a sustainable income, both for the humans and the other species. Connecting 2,500 small farmers and 2,200 beekeepers to market, Golden Bee trains and collects the honey from across Uganda and processes the honey in Kampala. They sell their natural, organic, honey in supermarkets. The enterprise is self-sustaining. I was particularly interested in the agroforestry and forest restoration of indigenous species training because of the relationship between humans and the environment as it leads to food sovereignty and connection to culture. Golden Bees also trains people to make beehives out of local found/cheap materials instead of purchasing or receiving from an NGO the $35 wooden hives. By building and maintaining relationships with the beekeepers, Golden Bees invests in the long-term wellbeing and prosperity of Ugandans.
How should NGOs respond when local social entrepreneurs address the space? Should the NGO leave? Offer support? What are the different relationships and stigmas between government, NGOs, and businesses in developing vs. developed economies?
Young African Refugees for Integral Development (YARID) is an NGO addressing the needs of urban refugees. Founded by Congolese youth refugees, it aims to bring hope, stability, and self-reliance through local action. Uganda has a relatively welcoming policy for refugees; it is is the 5th largest hosting country worldwide and provides re-settlement camps in rural areas and access to farming so refugees can begin a new life for themselves here. Some refugees, however, come from urban areas and, unable to adapt to the agrarian lifestyle, move to the cities. Once in the cities, though, there are no social programs. It is assumed that urban refugees are able to sustain themselves. They face distinct challenges, struggling with safety, health, and economic access. During our visit at YARID, we had small group discussions to better understand their struggles and the impact of YARID. My group spoke with Maoua Annise, Ememidu, and Diaete. Maoua Annise remarked that being a refuge “makes her bitter.” She left a good life in the Congo and now struggles to keep her daughters safe from rape and becoming pregnant. Diaete explained that being a refugee is “like putting life into brackets because you never know when it will end.” They emphasized that human rights are not extended to refugees but YARID, through community organizing, attempts to meet their needs. They provide sewing machines and training for women to generate an income.
After asking many questions of them, the women turned to us. “How is your research going to help us or other refugees? What can we expect from you?”
This question left me speechless, for I did not want to lie to them and promise a better future. As climate change and ensuing conflicts increase, there will probably be more refugees worldwide. Although I hope for a better world for these people, I do not know if this world will come, especially through me and this trip. I told them this, and they nodded in solemn agreement.
*A shared reflection from cohort member, Lizbeth:
What are you doing here, mzungu?
Mzungu: a wanderer // one who wanders aimlessly // foreigner // nonlocal person // an other // one with money // an educated person // one who is not from here
“Mzungu! Mzungu! Mzungu!” the children yell from outside the windows of our bus.
We stand… I stand out like a sore thumb. Are we more than just an invasion in this land? Are we welcomed or is our welcome tainted by a history of colonialism and exploitation?
Am I mzungu or am I me? How do I define my positionality, power, privilege, background, and objective in this context?
What are you doing here, mzungu?